apo- (pō̆ , ap-u, pu)

apo- (pō̆ , ap-u, pu)
    apo- (pō̆ , ap-u, pu)
    English meaning: from, out, of
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “ab, weg”
    Material: O.Ind. ápa “ off, away, back “ as adnominal Prep. m. abl. “ away from “, Av. ap. apa “ away from “; about privatives *ap- in Iran, and Gk. see Schwyzer ZII. 6, 230 ff.; Gk. ἄπο, ἀπό m. gen. (= *ablative) “ away from, ex, from “; Maced. ἀπ-, ἀβ-; Alb. prapë “ again, back “ (*per-apë); Lat. ab m. Аbl., “ prep. with abl. (1) of motion or measurement in space, from, away from. (2) of time, from, after. (3) of separation, difference, change, from ; so of position or number, counting from ; and of the relation of part to whole, out of, of. (4) of origin and agency; esp. with passive verbs, by, at the hands of, because of. (5) viewed from, on the side of : “a tergo”, in the rear; hence in connection with, as regards “ (before voiced consonant from ap, still in aperiō from *ap-u̯eri̯ō; perhaps also in aprīcus, s. WH. I 59; about Lat. af s. just there 1; abs = Gk. ἄψ “ back, again “; out of it as- before p-, as-portō; ü before voiced consonants), Umbr. ap-ehtre “ from without, from the outside; on the outside, outwardly “ (about other, unsafe Osc.-Umbr. Belege s. v. Planta I 209, 426, II 454 f.); Goth. af prefix and preposition m. dat. “ from, away from, from here “, O.N. af adv. and preposition m. dat., O.E. æf, of, O.S. af, O.H.G. aba, ab- “ from, away from “, Ger. ab-. compare also Lith. apačià “ the lower part “ (as “ turned away part “, *apoti̯ü, to O.Ind. ápatya- n. “ progeny “ and Hitt. ap-pé-iz-zi-ia-aš (appezii̯as) “ back “. As Celt. derivatives are taken up from *apo O.Welsh, Welsh o “ ex-, from, of “, O.-M.Corn., O.-Mod.Bret. a ds. However, comes for this poor in sound Brit. form rather affiliation to O.Ir. ō, ua in consideration (Thurneysen Gk. 524), so that of all Brit. it remains quite unsafe. In Hitt. a-ap-pa (apa) “ behind, back “ (compare Gk. ἀπο-δίδωμι “ give back, return “) have maybe collapsed IE apo and epi (Pedersen Hitt. 188, Couvreur H̯ 94 f., Lohmann IF. 51, 324 f.).
    Derivatives: apо-tero-, ap-ero-, ap-i̯o-, ap-ōko- and above apoti̯ü, apeti̯o-. O.Ind. apataram adv. “ farther away “, ap. apataram adv. “ apart, somewhere else “, Gk. ἀπωτέρω “ farther distant “ (ἀπωτάτω “ very far away “); maybe Goth. aftarō “ from the back, backward “, aftuma, aftumists “ the last “, O.E. æftemest ds. and Goth. aftra “ back, again “, O.H.G. O.S. aftar adv. “ behind, after “ and Prep. m. dat. “ after, behind, according to “, O.E. æfter ds., O.N. eptir adv. and Prep. m. dat. and acc. “ after “, aptr adv. “ back, backward “. For this Gmc. However, words relationship also stands with Gk. ὄπιθεν, IE *epi, *opi to the consideration (Schulze KZ. 40, 414 Anm. 3), compare still Goth. afta “behind”, O.E. æft “ behind, later “, Goth. aftana “from the back”, O.N. aptan, O.E. æftan, O.S. aftan, M.H.G. aften “ afterwards”. O.Ind. ápara- “ back, later, following, other “, adv. -ám “ after, later “, Av. ap. apara- “ back, later, following “, adv. -ǝm, -am, Sup. O.Ind. apamá-, Av. apǝma- “ the one farthest away, the most distant, the last “; Goth. afar adv. and preposition with dat. and acc. “ after, afterward “, O.H.G. avar, abur (latter from *apu-ró-m, as O.N. aur- “ bottom, lower, nether, back “ in compound, see Falk- Torp, 11 f.) “ again, once more, against it “ (Ger. aber), O.N. afar “ esp., very much “ (compare to meaning O.Ind. ápara- also “ outlandish, peculiar, extreme, extraordinary “, Lidén Stud. 74 ff.; O.E. eafora, O.S. aƀaro “ descendant “). see still * üpero- “ shore “. maybe Alb. (*apar) parë “first, top”, afër “*away, close”, afërm “relative, descendant”, (*üper- ) prej “from”. Gk. ἄπιος “ remote, far “ (probably also O.N. efja f. “ bay in a river in which the current runs back “, O.E. ebba m. “ low tide “, O.S. ebbia f., M.N.Ger. ebbe, where borrows from Ger. Ebbe, as “ ebb, the outward movement of the tide; the return of tidewater towards the sea “). O.Ind. ápüka- “ recumbent apart, distant, coming from the front “, Arm. haka- as 1. composition part “ against “, hakem “ piegare ad una parte, inclinare “, O.C.S. opaky “ again “, Church Slavic opako, opaky, opače “ back, inverted “, in which, admittedly, forms can be partly also related to *opi, Gk. ὄπιθεν (compare Lat. opücus “ shaded, shady; dark, shadowy, obscure “ = “ turned away from the sun “; Literary formation by (Brugmann Grdr. II2 1, 482). Besides O.N. ǫfugr “ after, turned backward “, O.S. aƀuh, avuh, O.H.G. abuh, abah “ turned away, inverted, wicked “ (Ger. äbig, äbicht), O.E. *afoc in Eng. awkward, from *apu-ko-s (or from *opu-ko-s : ὄπιθεν, so that in the ablaut to Goth. ibuks “ being on the decline “, O.H.G. ippihhōn “ roll back “? Johansson PBrB. 15, 230, in the consonant relegating to πυ-γή, see also Falk-Torp under avet). pō̆ : Av. pa-zdayeiti “ let to move away, scare off “; Lat. po-situs, pōnō “to put down, set down, put, place, set, fix, lay, deposit” from *po-s[i]nō, po-liō, po-lūbrum, pōrcet “to keep off, keep back, to hinder, restrain” from *po-arcet; Alb. pa m. acc. “ without “, pa- “un-” (Gl. Meyer Alb. Wb. 317); O.Fris. fån “ from, of “, O.S. fana, fan, O.H.G. fona, fon m. dat. (= *abl.) “ from, of “ (O.H.G. -o- is after Persson IF. 2, 215 to derive from IE *pu beside *po). A similar form pursues Trautmann O.Pruss. 389 in O.Pruss. pan-s-dau “thereafter”. Is totally unsafe whether Arm. oɫork “ polished, slippery, smooth “ contains according to Lidé n Arm. stem 60 ff. o- from *po-. Maybe suffixed Alb. pas “behind, back” pastaj “later, thereafter”. Against it here in spite of often divergent meaning (Brugmann Grdr. II2 2, 808 considers absorption from IE *upo, and for sl. po in meaning “ behind, after “ m. loc. probably properly origin from *pos): O.C.S. po “ after, in, with, about a little bit there “ (Lith. pō with gen. under dat. “after”, with instr. “under”), as essential only more perfective verbal prefixes Lith. pa-, O.C.S. po- (as nominal prefix O.C.S. pa-, Lith. pa and pó-, compare e.g. O.C.S. pamьněti “ remember “, pamętь “ memory”); O.Pruss. pa- essential in nominal, pō- in verbal compound, compare Trautmann 203, Meillet Slave comm.2 505. About Slav. po-dъ “ below, under “ see Brugmann Grdr. II2 2, 733 f. - S. still IE *po-ti and *po-s. Maybe Alb. (*po-s) poshtë “below, under” from the same root as Slav. languages Slav. podъ “below, under “ from Root apo- (pō̆ , ap-u, pu): (from, out, of) not from Root pē̆ d-2, pō̆ d- : (foot, *genitalia). ap-u stands beside *apo (Lith. see below *pu) in ark. Cypr. Lesb. Thess. ἀπύ, in O.H.G. abo = aba, O.N. au-virđi n. “ contemptuous person “ (Falk-Torp 11 f.), compare also above *apu-ro- beside *apero-, *apu-ko-, and *pu beside *po. That -u maybe enkLith. Particle “ and, also “ (Feist Зa, 508a, WH. I 87). compare also Schwyzer Gk. I 182. pu (see оbove *apu) mostly in meaning (“ turned away “ =) “ behind, back “: O.H.G. fona (see above), O.Ind. punar “ again back “, Gk. πύματος “ the last “; quite uncertain Lat. puppis “ the poop or stern of a vessel; poet. the whole ship “. maybe Alb. pupa “ the poop or stern of a vessel “ : Pol. pupa “bottom”.
    References: WP. I 47 ff., WH. I If., 842, Feist За, Trautmann 11.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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